GOURD (Heb. דְּלַעַת; pl. דְּלוּעִים), a plant. It occurs in the Bible only in the form of a place-name Dilan, a town in the inheritance of Judah (Josh. 15:38), but it is frequently mentioned in talmudic literature. In modern Hebrew the word is applied to the gourd of the genus Cucurbita, now grown extensively in Israel, but since this genus originates in America the word undoubtedly designated some other plant in ancient times. From its many descriptions in talmudic literature, the reference is clearly to the calabash gourd (Lagenaria vulgaris), then a most important crop in Ereẓ Israel. Its large fruit, usually shaped like a broad-bellied bottle, was used as a vegetable when soft and when hard its shell was used as a container for liquid and food (Kil. 7:1). Vessels made from the fruit have been found in ancient Egyptian graves. Talmudic literature has many descriptions of the gourd. Its extremely smooth skin gave rise to the expression "he shaves himself as smooth as a gourd" (Sot. 16a). Various dishes were prepared from the soft fruit (Shev. 2:10), but its dried seeds are not fit for eating (TJ, Shev. 2:10, 34a). The plant has leaves which are very large and hard, and which could be written on in an emergency (Tosef., Git. 2:3); it has tendrils by which it climbs any support (TJ, Er. 1:1, 18b). Various strains of the gourd were grown, among which the Mishnah mentions the Syrian, Egyptian, Remuẓian, and Greek gourds (Kil. 1:5; Ned. 51a). Of these the last strain was the most important and so vigorous that one plant could cover an entire field (Kil. 3:7). Also used in the Talmud to designate the gourd, kara, apparently an Aramaic word, is included among the food eaten on the New Year (Ker. 6a). (For the correct meaning of kikayon in Jonah 4:6 et al. (AV, JPS "gourd") see castor plant .) -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Loew, Flora, 1 (1928), 542–8; J. Feliks, Kilei Zera'im ve-Harkavah (1967), 66–71. (Jehuda Feliks)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • gourd — gourd …   Dictionnaire des rimes

  • gourd — gourd, gourde [ gur, gurd ] adj. • XIIe gort, fém. gorde; bas lat. gurdus « lourdaud, grossier » ♦ Engourdi et comme perclus par le froid. Avoir les doigts gourds. ♢ Fig. Maladroit, mal à l aise. Se sentir gourd. ⊗ CONTR. Agile, 2. délié, souple …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Gourd — Gourd, n. [F. gourde, OF. cougourde, gouhourde, fr. L. cucurbita gourd (cf. NPr. cougourdo); perh. akin to corbin basket, E. corb. Cf. {Cucurbite}.] 1. (Bot.) A fleshy, three celled, many seeded fruit, as the melon, pumpkin, cucumber, etc., of… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Gourd — ist der Name von Emilie Gourd (1879–1946), Schweizer Frauenrechtlerin Gourd (Arkansas), Ort in den Vereinigten Staaten Gourd (Musikinstrument), ein Musikinstrument Diese Seite ist eine Begriffsklärung zur Unterscheidung mehr …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • gourd — gourd, ourde (gour, gour d ) adj. Perclus par le froid. •   J ai les mains si gourdes et si pesantes, qu il m est impossible d en écrire, Portrait d un inconnu, en 1661, dans FR. MICHEL, Argot. •   ...outre l air méchant, elle a l air aussi… …   Dictionnaire de la Langue Française d'Émile Littré

  • gourd — [gôrd, goord] adj. [ME gourde < OFr gouorde < L cucurbita] designating a family (Cucurbitaceae, order Violales) of dicotyledonous plants, including the squash, melon, cucumber, and pumpkin n. 1. any trailing or climbing plant belonging to… …   English World dictionary

  • Gourd — Gourd, Gourde Gourde n. [Sp. gordo large.] A silver dollar; so called in Cuba, Haiti, etc. Simmonds. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Gourd — Gourd, n. A false die. See {Gord} …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • gourd — [ gɔrd ] noun count a type of fruit with a hard thick skin. Some gourds can be cooked and eaten. a. the hard shell of a gourd used as a container for water or food …   Usage of the words and phrases in modern English

  • Gourd — On trouve le nom dans la région lyonnaise, mais aussi dans le Sud Ouest. Peut être un sobriquet pour une personne lente, sans vivacité, également lourde, grossière (sen de l adjectif gort en ancien français). Mais il s agit le plus souvent d un… …   Noms de famille

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